Grundlagen für die Wahrnehmung und Beobachtung von Gruppen (German Edition)

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Sowohl die visuelle Wahrnehmung als auch Defizite im auditorischen- sprachbezogenen Bereich sollen eine starke kognitive Komponente besitzen und nur schwache Beziehungen zu Defiziten im sensorischen Verarbeitungsprozess, also werden sie in vielen Modellen nicht als zentrale Defizite im sensorischen Verarbeitungsprozess gesehen.

Dunns Nosologie benutzt zwei Kriterien: [82] den reaktiven Typ passiv oder aktiv und sensorische Reizschwelle zu Input niedrig oder hoch creating 4 types: [83]. Ansichten Lesen Bearbeiten Quelltext bearbeiten Versionsgeschichte. In anderen Projekten Commons. Waiving evidence of efficacy would mean a step backwards into the pre-scientific era, when it was more or less a matter of good luck whether the doctor prescribed an actually helpful medicine. Evidence of efficacy requires a drug to show an effect in patients which is established by scientific experiments. The same holds for the doctors or caregivers, so that all the patients receive the same care.

Scientifically sound evidence of efficacy will be based on such studies. This is the gold standard of evidence, the placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blinded clinical trial PCT. This study design is suitable for the individualized therapy approach of homeopathy as well.

There are a number of such studies also systematic reviews of them : all subjects go through the initial consultation and a drug is prescribed.

In the pharmacy either the prescribed drug or a placebo is randomly supplied to the patient. If the remedy under test is effective, the outcomes between the two groups will differ, but it is necessary to determine whether the difference observed really is likely to be caused by the drug. Even in a control group that actually remains untreated, improvements occur which are evidently not caused by the drug.

Since both the placebo and verum group usually show improvements in symptoms, the result must be evaluated with statistical methods to check if different outcomes between the groups may have been caused by chance alone, due to allocation of the patients to their groups. So the result of a clinical study is not a clear yes-or-no. Almost certainly there will be fluctuations during replications, some may even yield quite different results. To arrive at a final conclusion from a set of trials, a systematic review is required, in which all published studies on a particular cure for a given clinical condition are examined and an overall result is determined.

It is important that all available studies are taken into consideration, not only the positive ones. Individual studies can only provide a more or less strong indication of potential efficacy. To note: Even if a systematic review would yield positive findings for homeopathy, this could establish the effectiveness of homeopathy for the specific condition under investigation only. No study or review can prove the efficacy of homeopathy in general.

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Due to the self-healing powers already referred to, which certainly exist at different levels in different individuals, there are always people who can improve even in serious conditions without any cure — people that can survive the most serious infectious diseases or even cancer, for example. There may be only a few of them, but they do exist. As a result, there will always be patients who can report that they have supposedly been cured because of this or that therapy, or because of whatever they did — like prayer, or promising to be good in the future, or erecting a church, or whatever —, even if it did not contribute anything real to progress their recovery.

On the other hand, there always will be people who do not respond to an otherwise effective treatment and who may die from a disease despite a usually successful cure. Consider the results of a recent study on alternative medical treatment of cancer.

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The results seven years after diagnosis and after alternative or conventional treatment looked like this data transformed to meaningful numbers and entities [1]:. From the patients who survived for seven years under the alternative therapy, certainly a whole lot of case studies can be derived, all of which indicate the success of alternative medicine. You may even refer to the 72 patients that died under conventional cancer therapy to stress the point of alleged superior performance of the alternative therapy. Even if positive cases under conventional therapy may find their way into case studies as well: what for sure will remain unnoticed is the fact that considerably more of the conventionally treated patients survived than under alternative treatment.

And for sure there will be very few case studies of the deaths under alternative treatment, if any at all. At least the author of this piece is not aware of any such case studies from alternative medicine that had a negative outcome. But this does not mean, they do not exist — only that the therapist is unwilling to share his failure. The fact that considerably more patients under alternative medicine died than in the conventional group is completely lost in case studies. After all, those who have died in excess are lying in their graves and do not boast their failure in talk shows, books, or interviews.

After all, it is hardly to be expected that therapists will publish their failures in case studies and disseminate them as widely as their positive results advertising them with the same rigor: A very important point to assess the effectiveness of a therapy is therefore missing. That would be like counting only the goals that your team scored — forgetting they received a lot more from their opponents. In a nutshell: Case studies of successful treatments, even in large numbers, only show that there are a number of people who recover under the alternative treatment — and nothing else.

There is no denying that these cases exist, but this is no indication if there might be many more patients who did not fare so well. But the real patients and their therapists would need some information on the chances of recovery — which includes the ratio of failed treatments. HRI states that by the end of there have been randomized controlled clinical studies, of which compared homeopathy with placebo.

One wonders whether patients who spend their money on an ineffective, sugar-like remedy and perhaps hope for an improvement of their condition would see it the same way? Then there is the so-called publication bias, also known as file-drawer effect: the fact that positive results are readily and willingly published, whereas negative ones tend to remain in the file-drawer forever, never to be spoken or heard of again.

In addition, there are shortcomings in the published studies, such as inadequate blinding of the test subjects, or inappropriate methods of evaluation, which can lead to the results being skewed in a positive direction, and a lot more issues that render a study of poor quality. All of this increases the proportion of positive studies in the database. As already explained, evidence for efficacy of homeopathy for any indication can only be derived if studies have been independently repeated and the results of all of them pooled in a systematic review.

It goes without saying that this review should cover the entire available evidence, not just the positive results. Such reviews do exist indeed. Starting with a work by Kleijnen et al. Neither for homeopathy in general nor for any indication is there reliable evidence that homeopathy outperforms placebo. The largest review published so far, the one by the Australian Ministry of Health in , comes to this conclusion [4], as does Mathie whose affiliation is the Homeopathy Research Institute. So what? What is such a comparison supposed to show?

If I want to compare my literary skills with those of Charles Dickens, it is certainly not helpful to ascertain that my ratio of torn and discarded pages may be the same as his.

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It would be important to compare what remains — in terms of quality of course, not quantity. Or does this article sound anything like David Copperfield?

In addition, homeopathic studies are confirmation research, i. In the lore of homeopathy there is no need for clinical trials, and in Europe homeopathic preparations are exempt from providing data on evidence in the recognition process to become a medicine to be sold in pharmacies only. This may well lead to an increased confirmation bias.

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Compared to real research you should expect the positive evidence might be expected to be exaggerated due to lack of scientific skepticism. Taking into account the strong claim of homeopaths that their treatment is on the same level as conventional medicine — if not better —, you should expect a much more convincing database of positive evidence than there is available today.

You should expect the homeopaths to take great pains to explain how the negative results came about; their ratio of successful trials looks very poor for such a powerful treatment.

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Another aspect is raised, namely the lack of public funding for research into homeopathy. Please note the following: DHU belongs to the Dr. Willmar Schwabe group, like the largest manufacturer of homeopathic medicines in Austria, Peintner. According to their website, Schwabe sells products for million euros per year and spends a meager 32 million euros on research. There seems a lot of potential room for further research funding.

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We critics of homeopathy maintain our position: there is no scientific evidence for an effect of homeopathy that exceeds placebo — and this is not due to the lack of money that could be invested in research. Thanks to Udo Endruscheit and Sven Rudloff for their support in preparing this english version. At best, if a trial is of good quality, it may give an indication that homeopathy might be more effective than placebo in the one medical condition that was tested in the trial, but not more.