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Getting there. Pohang Airport 76 km. Nearby restaurants. Angel in Us. Chuncheon Chicken Ribs. Seonchang Sashimi Restaurant. Busan Sashimi Restaurant. Compare More Popular Hotels. Traveller rating. Time of year. Traveller type. Complete genome sequence of Apricot pseudo-chlorotic leaf spot virus from Prunus persica in South Korea. Microbiol Resour Announc 8:e Received Feb 21; Accepted Apr This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4. Open in a separate window.
Data availability. Characterization of apricot pseudo-chlorotic leaf spot virus, a novel trichovirus isolated from stone fruit trees. Phytopathology 95 — Apricot pseudo-chlorotic leaf spot virus, p — APS Press, St. Paul, MN.
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First report of apricot pseudo-chlorotic leaf spot virus infection of peach in China. J Plant Pathol 94 :S4. First report of apricot pseudo-chlorotic leaf spot virus infecting plum Prunus domestica in the Czech Republic. Based on this change of direction, the strategy for the strengthening of future nuclear safety capabilities promotes three development strategies: maximization of the safe operation of NPPs for the next 60 years; expanded utilization of safety based technology capability; and securing and spreading innovative capability of future nuclear safety technology.
The Republic of Korea has signed nuclear cooperative agreements with 29 States, holding joint standing committees with the United States of America, France, the Russian Federation, China, India and Saudi Arabia on a regular basis, annually or once every two years. The two main purposes of bilateral cooperation are the advancement of nuclear technology by securing specific technologies and the establishment of foundation on overseas promotion by expanding technical exchanges in a long term basis. Table 8 shows the current status of joint standing committees with six States.
As a longstanding contributor to a regional cooperative agreement RCA , the Republic of Korea plays a pivotal role in the field of nuclear medicine and radiotherapy. As one of the proactive members, the Republic of Korea actively engages in new joint projects to deal with emerging cross-cutting issues such as decommissioning nuclear facilities, radioactive waste management and knowledge management.
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The Republic of Korea has also participated in the GIF since the first meeting in , carrying out joint development of the next generation nuclear energy systems such as sodium cooled fast reactors and very high temperature reactors. In , the GIF Policy Group recognized the representative of the Republic of Korea as a vice chair whose duty is to promote research collaboration among the GIF members and observer organizations.
Since , the Republic of Korea has also contributed to IFNEC activities exploring multilateral approaches for promoting the peaceful use of nuclear energy.
It has shared its experiences of developing nuclear technology system and its applications with diverse members at every subgroup meeting within the framework, including the Nuclear Supplier and Customer Countries Engagement Group. The Energy Transition Policy was initiated in The main contents of which are: i a customized human resource nurturing programme; iii a nuclear fusion technology specialized programme; iii a nuclear human resources management programme; iv a nuclear global researcher nurturing programme; and v a nuclear HRD international cooperation programme.
Hanyang University established the first nuclear engineering department in the Republic of Korea in , and the Seoul National University followed in As of , there are 17 universities that facilitate a major in nuclear engineering:. Nuclear engineering as a track combination of mechanical, aerospace or energy engineering with nuclear engineering :.
NECC member organizations cooperate for information exchanges, collaborating on education and training programmes for domestic and overseas needs, as well as monitoring the national nuclear HRD policy and programmes see Fig. A public debate commission was formed to discuss policy recommendation for construction work on the Shin Kori-5 and 6 nuclear reactors. After a series of debates, the commission concluded that construction should be continued, and so the construction resumed.
From a national energy mix perspective, the Korea Energy Information Culture Agency KEIA conducted a wide range of activities to cope with social conflicts and national concerns surrounding different energy sources. Social media platforms are frequently used where two way communications can be actively carried. Energy related information including nuclear issues are delivered in various formats, such as through news outlets, infographic, webtoons and video clips.
KEIA has invested much effort in creating discussion venues participated by various stakeholders to collect opinions on nuclear energy and find ways to reduce conflicts through discussion. KEIA also invites energy experts from abroad to hold events such as roundtable talks and press conferences.
Much effort to strengthen media relations has been invested so that proper public opinion can be formed on current policy issues through news articles, roundtable talks and symposia focusing on current, relevant issues. KEIA operates a work experience programme where middle school students can participate in lectures on career paths in energy industry including nuclear energy and renewables. Activities regarding radiological emergency preparedness are based on the Act on Physical Protection and Radiological Emergency APPRE , which stipulates the system of managing radiological emergency, as well as the Framework Act on Civil Defense and the Basic Act of Disasters and Safety Control, which stipulate the system of national response against disasters of various kinds.
The APPRE, legislated in May and in force in February , stipulates overall radiological emergency management affairs including prevention of, preparedness for, and response to, radiological emergencies, radiological emergency medical treatment and international cooperation. Each year, the NSSC prepares the National Radiological Preparedness Plan, which is an annual implementation plan for radiological preparedness, and local governments with relevant jurisdiction over all or a part of an emergency planning zone EPZ make their own radiological preparedness plan every year in accordance with the Basic Plan for National Safety Management and the National Radiological Preparedness Plan.
The nuclear licensee also establishes a radiological emergency plan and obtains approval of its plan from the NSSC for operation. Other facilities related to the use of nuclear energy and those which obtain a construction permit and operating licence of the nuclear facilities as nuclear licensee.
Hence, nuclear licensees such as operators of NPPs and facilities related to spent fuel and radioactive waste are required to perform emergency response activities in case of radiation emergency or disasters in accordance with the radiological emergency plan approved by the rules and requirements mentioned above. With the power reactor and related facilities as the centre, the PAZ has a radius of 3—5 km and the UPZ a radius of 20—30 km. Subordinate statutes were also revised to set the EPZ, taking regional characteristics such as roads and topography into consideration.
The NSSC has a responsibility to control and coordinate the countermeasures against radiological disaster. Central government offices and specialized institutes participate as members of the committee meeting to initiate a practical pan-governmental response system. The NSSC establishes and operates the OEMC, which is chaired by the secretary general of the NSSC and consists of experts from the central and local governments, local military and police, firefighting and educational institutes, nuclear safety expert organizations, radiological medical service institutes and the personnel dispatched by the licensees.
The OEMC has a responsibility to perform coordination and management of radiological emergency response such as accident analysis, radiation radioactivity detection, and decision making on public protective actions such as sheltering, evacuation, food restriction, distribution of thyroid protection medicine, and control of the carrying out or consumption of agricultural, livestock and fishery products.
It also takes charge of coordination and control of emergency relief activities utilizing local fire stations, police stations and military units. When an accident occurs, the KHNP, the licensee of nuclear installations, is responsible for organizing an emergency operation centre and for taking measures to mitigate the consequences of the accident, restore installations and protect the on-site personnel.
The central government established and has operated the national radiological emergency medical treatment system for coordination and control of radiological medical services. The national radiological emergency medical treatment system consists of the KIRAMS Radiological Emergency Medical Center and 24 primary and secondary radiological emergency medical centres. As a result, the residents living PAZs can be provided with prompt and effective protective measures if radioactive material is released.
Local government designates public buildings in different regions as aid stations in advance, considering estimated population of evacuation, estimated time, and distance for evacuation of the residents living in the PAZ. In case of an accident, relevant actions of sheltering and evacuation are carried out based on the decision of the OEMC.
Considering particular aspects of a radiological accident, the local government and the nuclear installation operator must jointly alert the population living within a radius of 5 km from the nuclear installation. The operators of nuclear installations are responsible not only for reporting emergency situations to the organizations concerned but also for providing the local government with advice and consultations on protective measures at the early phase of the accident.
When an emergency situation occurs, to prevent thyroid exposure from radioactive iodine, the local government retains potassium iodide for emergencies and maintains a distribution system. KHNP has made agreements with designated hospitals near the site of nuclear installations for prompt medical service in case of a radiological accident, and established the Radiation Health Research Institute, which conducts research activities and incorporates the results into radiation and health physics.
It also provides the radiological emergency medical service and the medical examination for nuclear workers. The operator of nuclear installations periodically conduct repeated training and exercises for emergency personnel to qualify them by providing thorough knowledge of emergency duties. According to the APPRE, radiological emergency training is comprehensively managed at a national level. In that sense, KINS has conducted the regulatory inspection of radiological emergency training programmes in radiological emergency educational institutes.
To support the implementation of comprehensive and systematic radiological emergency training, the NSSC Notice on Education for Radiological Emergency Preparedness specifies the designation and notification of radiological emergency staff, establishment of training programmes, method of training and other necessary details. After the expansion of the EPZ in May in accordance with the revised APPRE, the NSSC pushed forward its follow-up measures by revising Enforcement Decree in November , in which the joint exercise of radiological preparedness organized by local governments take place by NPP sites once every two years instead of once in four years and intensive exercises focusing on resident protection are to be introduced.
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Besides, emergency preparedness exercise has been further strengthened by initiating a massive combined exercise participated by central government once a year instead of once every five years. Emergency exercises are held, in which on-site and off-site emergency preparedness organizations must participate, as follows:. Unified exercises, in which the emergency organizations of nuclear installations, off-site emergency organizations, and central and local governments are to participate, are held by the NSSC on a national level once every year. Integrated emergency exercises, in which all on-site and off-site emergency organizations are to participate, are held, led by local governments, at the nuclear installation site once every two years.
Intensive exercises, in which local governments are to participate, are held for specific fields of resident protective measures such as traffic control, dissemination of situation to the residents, sheltering and evacuation, distribution of thyroid protection medicine, operation of aid stations, environmental radiation monitoring and radiological emergency medical treatment, among other things, once every year.
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On-site emergency exercises, in which all emergency units in nuclear power stations of two units are to participate, are held every year. Drills, in which each emergency unit in a nuclear installation are to participate, are held every quarter.
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The promotion and regulation of nuclear energy in the Republic of Korea were originally managed by a single government agency the former Ministry of Education, Science and Technology. However, in an effort to enhance regulatory independence and fairness, the Government decided to separate the regulatory responsibilities from the previous nuclear energy administrative system. As a result, the NSSC was established as an independent administrative organization in in order to take the responsibility of the comprehensive nuclear safety regulation to protect people and the environment from nuclear and radioactive threats.
Under the regulatory framework of nuclear safety, in accordance with the Act on Establishment and Operation of the Nuclear Safety and Security Commission, the NSSC takes the responsibility and function on regulatory and administrative activities for nuclear safety, which include the utilization of reactors and related facilities, fuel cycle facilities, radioactive waste disposal facilities, nuclear material, and radioactive isotopes and radiation generators.
The NSA stipulates that the NSSC has the full authority and sole responsibility when it comes to the safety regulation on the nuclear installation. Title Major contents Competent authorities Note Nuclear Safety Act Provides rules on safety management in the research, development, production, use, etc. All provisions on nuclear safety regulation and radiation protection are prescribed in the NSA. The NSA is therefore the main law concerning safety regulations of nuclear installations. The legal framework for Nuclear Safety, as shown in Fig. The NSA stipulates fundamental matters concerning the basis of safety regulation, the NSSC, Comprehensive Plan for Nuclear Safety as well as the construction permit and operating licence of nuclear installations.
Detailed standards and guidelines have been developed to utilize on regulatory activities in a practical manner based on the standards and requirements prescribed in acts, decrees, ordinances and notices. The industrial standards applicable to nuclear activities have also been endorsed by the regulatory body and are being applied to the design and operation of nuclear installations.